This volume consists of 13 chapters focusing on various fields of Bioscience. The simplicity of the content was aimed in attracting readers from general science and non-science background. The multidisciplinary nature of the chapters in this book comprises niche areas on Plant Biology and Genetics, Ecology and Conservation, Environmental Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Bioremediation and Phytoremediation and Biofuel Production. Topics covered in this book range from genetic diversity, turning cassava from waste to wealth, plant secondary-product for green agrochemical to the potential effects of heavy metals on carbohydrate contents of cow-pea. Also included are chapters on bioremediating microbes and phytoplankton distribution in reservoir, waste-water analyses of heavy metal composition in industrial effluents, fungal species as a biological control agent against crop diseases, as well as some fundamental aspects and issues addressing biorefinery and molecular identification of organisms important for bioremediation. Advances in various fields in bioscience continue to play major roles in the search for solutions-problems affecting mankind and further enable the improvement of societal economy by converting waste-to-wealth. This book presents and elucidates the use of biological tools with different fields using varied methods and experimental procedures. It aims to provide guidelines and offer a primary outlook on the field for students, researchers and the profession.