This book focuses on the potentials of microbes to be applied for health improvement, bioremediation and bioproduction. Covering the aspects of microbiology, it describes the current findings of research to solve some issues in Malaysia. Each chapter describes the structure and function of microbes that make them suitable for the applications in health, environment or industrial production. Exemplars of applications designed using microbiology principles are presented, including the microbial synthesis of medicinal and pharmaceutical compounds, the implementation of microbes for environmental treatment, the production of renewable energy and the industrial design for biomass production. Essential Microbiology and Its Applications in Malaysia, a comprehensive introductory that covers the fundamentals and the techniques of microbiology, could be a suitable guideline or reference to students, researchers and professionals working in the similar environment as Malaysia.