Calling for economically and environmentally sound water and wastewater treatment systems, the authors of this book delve into the use of adsorption technology as a more sustainable approach for the treatment of various water pollutants, including organic and inorganic matters. Rapidly growing cities and industries may accelerate the presence of these pollutants in water. Concerns have been raised about their adverse effects on human and aquatic lives. Adsorption process can be broadly applied to treat the pollutants due to its effective and economic techniques. Various types of adsorbents are used in adsorption processes, with high removal capacity. This book consists of 10 chapters focusing on the recent progress related to the application of various adsorbent materials in adsorption processes for the treatment of water pollutants. The types of adsorbent materials discussed in this book include phyto-waste, magnetic nanoparticles, microplastic, banana peel, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium-modified materials, zeolite, waste mussel shell, and banana frond. Chapters in this book present research and reviews on the application of these adsorbents for treating various types of water pollutants including heavy metals, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate, and lindane. This book will be beneficial for civil, chemical, and environmental engineers, environmental advocates, and researchers.